Digestive System Rap

energy is obtained by nutrition
that’s how this rhyme will come to fruition
let’s start with your digestive tract
begins with your mouth and that’s a fact
teeth and tongue chop up the food you eat
mechanical digestion you just can’t beat
when you want to make the food easier to go
down the esophagus or food tube bro
before you swallow there’s one more thing
saliva dissolves starch chemically
uses an enzyme called amylase
goes on in your mouth while your stuffing your face
digestion abstracts energy
originally from the sun you gotta listen to me
plants absorb the rays and animals eat plants
we eat plants and animals man it makes me wanna dance
smooth muscles push that food through after you swallow
through the esophagus, a tube that’s hallow
peristalsis it’s called
even when you’re upside down food falls
into the stomach, contains HCl
coated with mucous, protects it well
enzyme pepsin digests proteins
at amino acid terminals like tyrosine
one more step to complete digestion
food goes from stomach to the small intestine
for proteins we have protease
fats broken down by lipase
maltase there to digest maltose
sucrase there to digest sucrose
liver makes bile stored in gall bladder
this all happens in the small intestine, a very important  matter
bile acts by emulsifying fat
food finally hydrolyzed, can  ya hear that
lining contains lots of villi
inside are capillaries, can you figure out why
nutrients are transported by the blood stream
takes it to the cells, systems work as a team
remember other system is circulatory
gives the cell energy but that’s another story
food dried of nutrients now but still lots of water
re-absorption in large intestine is a direct order
forms it into waste, feces is queued
stored in the rectum, ‘till you make a number 2
animals need to eat and are called heterotrophs
plants make food from the sun and are called autotrophs
it’s photosynthesis an entirely different process
if I explained that right now man it would be a mess
if you know how and why we need to eat that’s cool
make the right choices don’t be no fool
food eventually enters your blood from your head to your feet
that food becomes you, you are what you eat

Integers Rap

life aint as simple as one and one is two
gotta talk about negatives wichu
integers include the entire bunch
in Latin that means “whole” or “untouched”
whole numbers and their negatives
are all called integers kid
zero are part of integers, I aint lyin’
first ones to know this were the Mayans
was a place holder in their calendars
of a base 20 system, not 10 like ours
probably ‘cuz they didn’t just count on their hands
also on their toes in that Chiapas land
southernmost part of Mexico
round 36 B.C. wrote the first zero
by 628 had it in India
written in a book by Brahmagupta
world won’t end in 2012 so don’t be scared
starts a new baktun of bout 400 years
this ain’t no show like gigante
breakin’ it down like Jaime Escalante
start with number line in both directions, yo
positives on the right, increase as they go
negatives on the left, don’t get messed up
value becomes less as numbers go up
to add, go right from the starting point
to subtract go left from the starting point
answer is on the number that you land
can do it another way, yes you can
adding a negative is an easy situation
change to positive while changing to subtraction
subtract a negative, gotta do the same
switch to addition and to positive you change
for example take 18+(-7)
answer you get gonna be 11
or if you take 30-(-10)
40 is your answer my friend
or try 4+(-8) know what you get
-4 will be your answer, that’s a sure bet
if you got 4 and lose 8 you down a few bro
you owe four and that’s less than zero
multiply and divide gotta know something
couple rules now while that beat is pumpin’
signs are same answer is positive
signs are different answer is negative
a negative times a positive is a negative
a positive times a negative is a negative
a positive times a positive is a positive
a negative times a negative is a positive
divide is the same rule as multiplyin’
that’s all there is to integers, stop ya cryin’
add, subtract, multiply or divide
it’s all good man, give it a try
-9 times 4, don’t need no tricks
signs are different so you get -36
-3 times -5 gives ya +15
‘cuz signs are the same, u know what I mean
-40 divided by 8
answer is -5, aint that great
54 divided by -6 equals -9
gon’ be negative each an every time

Circulatory System Rap

system’s called circulatory
nourishing cells is the gist of this story
heart pumps blood, takes oxygen we breathe
with nutrients to the cell it feeds
similar cells come together to form tissues
different tissues join so you won’t have any issues
organs work together to maintain life function
gonna rhyme about a system at this juncture
how do you transport nutrients to the cell
or take away waste, this I’m gonna tell
fluid transports smooth so that there’s no flood
it’s the circulatory system, uses a tissue called blood
blood’s make of plasma which is mostly water aight
suspends 2 types of cells, red blood cells and white
RBC’s contain hemoglobin carries O2
to every cell that make up me and you
white blood cells defend us, could be a phagocyte
eats them germs attacked by lymphocytes
lymphocytes produce antibodies that surround
bacteria or a virus, phagocyte gulps ‘em down
3 kinds of blood vessels so flow is maintained
capillaries arteries and veins
veins take blood to the heart, arteries away
if you can’t remember this think away = “a”
capillaries are microscopic, thickness of one cell
branch from arteries, keeps your tissues well
brings O2 and nutrients, takes away waste
CO2 released once O2 is displaced
process is called blood oxygenation
happens to every human from every nation
reason why we need to breathe all the time cant you see
aerobic organisms use it for energy
blood flows through the veins and on to the heart
a 4 chambered pump, it’s the most important part
blood enters right atrium from the vena cava
flows into right ventricle just like lava
right ventricle pumps to the lungs blood goes
gets more O2 then back to the heart it flows
through left atrium to the most muscular part
left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to all your body parts
through the aorta a blood vessel baller
the largest artery then branches into smaller
down to capillaries drops off O2 you see
cycle then repeats automatically
now  you know the function of your blood and your heart
it’s so beautiful, not a science but an art
stay healthy, heart disease is killer #1
eat lots of raw veggies and exercise, son


if you see a long mathematical expression man
simplify it by combining what you can
makes it much easier, don’t make me stutter
PEMDAS makes math smooth like butter
first is the P, means Parentheses
go inside those curved lines, believe me
do all the math you find in them
rewrite the expression now my friend
E for Exponents in the second phase
those little numbers you see that are raised
for example if you have 3 to the second power
make it a 9 real fast, don’t take an hour
third is M for Multiplication
in an expression or an equation
simplify by timesin’ what you see
and if  no operation next to parentheses
D is for Divide, order number four
divide could be a slash or maybe something more
a line in a fraction that can be simplified
or two dots above and below a straight line
Addition is the operation second to last
almost done with PEMDAS so that test you can pass
add the numbers with addition signs between ‘em son
should have no other operations left but one
number six is Subtraction, that’s the S
look for tiny horizontal line, don’t guess
difference between two numbers, just about done
take away amount on right from the left one
if you forget PEMDAS don’t sweat it
remember this phrase that’ll help you get it
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
it’s in every classroom from NYC to Cali


Pi Rap

take all the points equidistant
from one center and in an instant
you have a shape that very familiar
a circle is round and well, it’s circular
parts are real easy, a few you need to know
radius is length of center to outside, yo
double radius and you’ve got diameter
goes from one side straight to the other
take the outside and go all the way around
length is circumference, like a king’s crown
go around a wheel, my bling, or anything that’s round
see circumference everywhere, don’t be no clown
special number you also need to know called π
mathematical constant, same everywhere, why
divide circumference by diameter, this is pretty fly
always get 3.14 no matter circle’s size
Egyptians were the first to discover pi
used it to build the pyramids so high
tallest manmade structures in the world, believe me
for nearly 4,000 years until 1311 A.D.
let’s say circumference is C, diameter d
then C=πd, aint this easy
if radius is r then C is 2πr
Since d is double r, now we’re goin really far
let’s try an example with Dayton 22’s
22 inches in diameter you use
use C=πd on that sweet ride
length around that rim is 69.115
what if you want to know the size of some bling
droppin a G per sq inch of that round thing
need to know the area to figure out the cost
A=πr2, now you the boss
times the radius by itself then pi
radius is 3 inches, 32 is 9
wastin your dollars, instead you could buy a car
price of that piece is more than 28 large
when your ridin’ on your Ds and you got a mad thirst
is a soda can enough, gotta know sumthin’ first
can is a cylinder, top is a circle aight
find area then multiply by height
find volume of how much the can can fill
it’s V=πr2h, now you can chill
until you get to the basketball game
see that sphere get taken to the hole by LeBron James
rules say make C 29.5 inches dude
can you find the volume if it’s 4/3πr3
any circumference equals 2πr
told you this is true no matter where you are
divide each side by 2 and get 14.75
then by π and r equals 4.695
plug that in to 4/3πr3 fo sho
volume in cubic inches is about 434

E=mc^2 Rap

atom is the basic unit of matter and
all things alive or not are made of  ‘em
they’re what you get when you breakdown anything
so that in the universe everything is everything
made up of 3 different parts
at the center is the nucleus, it’s the heart
Inside are protons, positively charged
each one of those Ps wants to live large
gotta be stuck together by a neutron you see
no charge, got the nuclear strong force G
if it weren’t for these guys, atoms be buggin’
and then there’d be no matter, there wouldn’t be nothin’
outside the nucleus is the third part
but don’t think it’s the end, it’s only the start
electrons are negative, attracted to the Ps
opposites attract in all of chemistry
inside the atom, protons call the shots
number of protons you have, tells ya the element ya got
need one neutron for every P
but as elements get heavy, more neutrons ya need
Uranium 235, 92 protons
subtract and get 143 neutrons
repelling protons, unstable dude
143 neutrons aint enough glue
neutron from outside hits it like a bullet
two smaller atoms form, 3 neutrons, that’s not it
chain reaction, nuclear fission comes alive
lots of neutrons slam U-235
parts of the whole lose mass, so somthin’ is missin’
must be binding energy, Einstein was guessin
he turned out to be right so don’t be scared
mass converts to energy cuz E=mc2
nuclear energy is mighty strong
when released, lasts really long
c is the speed of light you see
square it and you get 9 with 16 zeros B
that small change in mass you times it by
to get lots of energy as heat, that aint no lie
put it in a bomb, destroy a city
or power a plant to make electricity

Quadratic Formula Rap

negative b plus or minus the square root
of b squared minus 4ac all over 2a
negative b plus or minus the square root
of b squared minus 4ac all over 2a
an equation with a variable of x
exponent of 1 and 2, don’t mean to vex
and a whole number is a quadratic
recognizing this gonna be automatic
start with ax^2 + bx + c = 0 please
coefficients are ez as you’re a,b,c’s
how to solve for x is ez too bro
if ya follow the formula, just follow my flow
x^2 + 5x -6 = 0
take this quadratic’s coefficients fo’ sho
a is 1 b is 5 and c -6
for the erratic quadratic Rhyme ‘n Learn master mix
-5 plus or minus the square root
of 5^2 minus 4 times 1 times -6 dude
all over 2 times 1, this ain’t no trick
the solutions are 1 and -6
2x + 1 = -x^2  yo
that ‘s   x^2 + 2x +1 = 0
plug that sucka into the quadratic form
-2 plus or minus the square root of  2^2  minus 4
times 1 times 1 and you’re almost done
all over 2 times 1 son
will give you not two answers but one
simplify it all to get -1

Scientific Notation Rap

how do you write a number really big
without tiring out your hand, ya dig
say it’s a trillion that’s 1 and 12 zeros
1 million million, I aint writin that out bro
easy way to do it everyone from every nation
uses it, it’s called Scientific Notation
let’s start with a number like 110
look for the decimal, it’s at the end
move the decimal to the left a certain number of spaces
until there’s one space left, that’s two places
now you got 1.10 not done yet
add a x 10 with an exponent
exponents gonna be number of places you moved
in this case that’s gonna be two
now you got 1.10 x 102
drop off the zero, make it easier to write dude
yeah that Scientific Notation, call it SyNote
got about 100,000,000,000,000 cells in the human body
or 1.0 x 1014
sun is 92,955,807 miles away
write in SyNote, make it easier to say
find the decimal, move it to the left
that’s seven places, till there’s one left
round the decimal to 9.3 cuz it’s easier than
writing out 9.2955807
use SyNote so it doesn’t take an hour
9.3 x 107
SyNote also used for really tiny numbers
so writing them out doesn’t take the rest of the summer
virus of the common cold
is 0.00000003 meters bro
move the decimal to the right this time
8 places come on man don’t be blind
got 3.0 x 10-8
easier to write now man SyNote is great
in your computer you got a processor with
a width of 0.000000065 m, or 6.5 x 10-8
you’re using it right now
sign of the exponent easy to remember
simple rule to use beginning this September
large number sign is positive
small number sign is negative
SyNote uses x 10 with an exponent
as an easy way to rewrite is what I meant
whether big or small it’s for amounts that are extreme
check all your work, keep the math clean
population of US is 3 x 108
fraction of the world can you estimate
total is about 7 x 109 dude
first 7 divided by three is about 2
divide the exponents by subtracting
9 minus 8 is 1 is exactly
that’s how you do it to get 101
now you got 2 x 10 or 20 son
one human chromosome contains about
220,000,000 base pairs, or 2.2 x 108
an E.coli bacteria is 0.000002 m long, or 2.0 x 10-6
the distance to Mars is 78,000,000,000 m
or 7.8 x 1010
for numbers that are really large, or small
gotta use that SyNote


Angles Rap

gonna talk about angles and lines if you please
unit of an angle is a degree
not the degree that makes you hot or cold
this aint temperature,  ain’t even close
start with two lines in this joint
converge at the vertex, or an endpoint
the point I’m tryin’ to make with this rhyme, it’s not
it’s a geometric point, looks like a dot
angulus means corner in Latin
ankylos means crooked in Greek if you’re rappin’
corners everywhere, 90 degree angles
listen up now, so with angles you can tangle
one line drawn straight up, makes an angle right
in Latin it’s rectus, in English that’s upright
word borrowed from the Romans, ya see
Julius Caesar was a G until 44 BC
draw a line inside an angle of 90 degrees
now you got two angles called complementary
for example if you got an angle of 33
its complementary is 57, B
if you open angle wider, double the size
to you might look like a straight line
there’s still a vertex as you can see
got yourself  an angle of 180 degrees
if you cut this angle of 180
now you got two called supplementary
for example if you got an angle of 120
supplementary is 60, money
vertical angles formed by intersecting lines
easy way to find ‘em all each and every time
opposite ones are equal to each other
that’s the truth kid, even ask your mother
for example if one angle is 70
find vertical angle x, man that’s easy
x is 70 and other two you can find
supplementary angle on other side of the line
that means other two are 110
supplementary angles equal 180 and
opposites are the same, now you know it all
now let’s talk about an angle that’s really small
small is a cute little angle now
acute angles are less than 90 degrees, wow
fat angles are obese or obtuse
greater than 90, that angle got some juice
wanna intersect parallel lines, don’t hit the floor
2 sets of  vertical angles turn into 4
same exact angles are formed below
don’t let these corresponding angles make ya slow
all you need to know about angles there it is
so you can pass that math quiz
if you get stuck and need to discover
listen to my rhyme to have all the angles covered

Pythagorean Theorem Rap

90 degrees make up a right angle
corner of a square or a rectangle
forms a type of triangle that’s right
gonna rhyme about this with all my might
gonna rhyme about triangles if you don’t mind
in total there are a few different kinds
isosceles: 2 sides are the same
scalene: 3 unequal of a frame
one special shape is everywhere though
look in a corner, right triangle bro
3 angles, one of which is 90 degrees
understand this and you’ll hold all the keys sides are called two legs and hypotenuse
hypotenuse gives the right angle juice
from the right angle on the opposite side
as the longest side it’s got a lot of pride
other angles smaller than 90 degrees
all add up to 180 don’t you see
leg can be opposite or adjacent
solve trig problems, don’t be complacent
need to use sine, cosine and tangent
properties of an angle, understand it
if not don’t worry too much
just use SOHCAHTOA to  get you through the clutch
sine is opposite over hypotenuse
cosine is adjacent over hypotenuse
tangent is opposite over adjacent
right angle expert now you can represent
with a calculator and limited info
you can figure out sides and angles bro
the way to measure ‘em when you see ‘em
formula called the Pythagorean theorem
let’s say hypotenuse is “c”
and the legs are “a” and “b”
in every right triangle everywhere
a2 + b2 = c2
Pythagoras was an old school G
in Greece he lived around 500 BC
wrote the first proof to the theorem
beat India to it and the Babylonians
let’s say you gotta build a ramp 3 feet tall
start it four feet from the wall
will let you know how much wood you need
shred that baby at just the right speed
just plug in 3 and 4
into the Pythagorean theorem, nothing more
take the square root of 25
length is five, now skate and stay alive
if a plane takes off at 40 degrees
how high is it if it travels 2000 feet
use SOHCAHTOA to find opposite
sine of 40 times 2000, that’s it
suppose you need to find a side
hypotenuse is 13, other is 5
find the missing leg by yourselves
Pythagorean theorem says that it’s 12

Calculus Rap

cruisin’ down the highway in your Bentley
going in a straight line, feelin’ like a G
checkin’ out your speed, set at 63
can also use a graph to calculate velocity
say x-axis is time and y is position
velocity easy to get, don’t you listen
just find change of  y over change of x
slope is rise over run or m…that’s a bet
don’t know what I mean, review on my mic
a linear function is like that cruise down the pike
start at b, where time is zero money
y=mx+b, don’t laugh, this ain’t funny
we ain’t drivin’ in a straight line on our next trip
slowin down speeding up as you zip
velocity is changing, with acceleration bro
need to use calculus to find out all the info
non-linear functions are mad confusing
this ain’t no simple graph like y=mx+b
in a linear function, or a straight line
slope is constant each and every time
but we aint drivin’ in a straight line on our next trip
slowin’ down speeding up as you zip
velocity is changing with acceleration bro
need to use calculus to find out all the info
crazy lookin graph with all them curves
slope is always changing, that’s my word
gotta calculate the derivative
at any point on the line, need to find what it is
y always relates to x as a function
also called f(x) at this juncture
pick any point on the curve at x
y coordinate will be f(x)
pick another point along the way,  yessur
tiny distance h from where you were
that x coordinate’s gonna be x+h
y will be f(x+h)
slope is change in y over change in x
over (x+h)-x
almost done now and you’ll be set
that’s numerator over h bro
but now we gotta make that tiny h zero
can’t have a zero in denom so here’s what we do
find limit as h approaches zero dude
it ain’t really hard, think more, don’t complain
calc is the study of instantaneous rate of change
accurate measurements are infinitesimally small
listen to my rhyme, ya ‘bout to know it all
for finding slope now need a derivative
can find it at any point with the function they give
f(x) = x2, piece of cake
to find derivative just plug in for pete’s sake
derivative is dy/dx or f’(x)
same thing, none is better than the rest
that’s (x+h)2 – x2 over h
equals x2 + 2xh
+ h2 – x2 over h
equals 2x+h ya see
but h is approachin’ zero, whatd’a think G
derivative of x2 is 2x finally


Rational and Irrational Numbers Rap

numbers on a number line are considered real
not imaginary man, that’s a big deal
real numbers are made up of two different kinds
got irrational and rational on my mind
ever hear someone being irrational talk
going on and on, away you wanna walk
all the words are jumbled, not makin no sense
same thing with numbers in this rhyme I will commence
an irrational number has no pattern at all
decimal keeps goin’, off the page it’s gonna fall
irrationals can still be ballers no lie
most famous one is a number called π
I could keep going but I’m already tired
rational numbers make a lot more sense
let’s take 0.5 or five tenths
it’s actually 0.5000
no need to write all the zeros you already know
decimal goes on and on and repeats
no need to keep writing,  just keep it neat
that’s a rational number, irrational its not
can be written as a fraction too, that’s sayin’ a lot
5/10 reduces to 1/2, nice and clean
1 divided by 2 is 0.5 you get what I mean
another rational number is radical 16
it’s called a perfect square, if you haven’t seen
one of these it’s easy, what number times itself
will give you 16? can do this by yourself
answer is 4 c’mon ya gotta know it’s real
think about it man it ain’t no big deal
use common sense there ain’t no trick
lemme explain the answer right quick
whole numbers can also be written as fractions
for example 4 can be written as a fraction
put the denominator underneath the 4 son
now you got a fraction of 4/1
1/3 is rational, can you guess why
well, it’s a fraction that’s an easy one guy
but when you convert it, know you what you get
a repeating decimal 0.33333333333333333333… you know the rest
rational numbers are easy to write
just memba that, keep the math tight
if you wanna get loose you can approximate
the value of an irrational, just wait
take your time think about what it could be
for example √2 must be between
1 and 2 since 12 is 1
and 22 is 4 son
try 1.2 times itself, what d’ya get
1.44 too little try again
1.3 times itself is 1.69
gettin’ a little closer each and every time
answers gonna be about 1.4
times it by itself got 1.96 or
take 1.41 to get more accurate
times it by itself to get 1.988


How To Graph Linear Equations Rap

axis – x, goes from right to left
axis – y, goes from low to high
this rhyme’s gonna take away all your frustrations
by teaching  you how to graph linear equations
first make sure you got axes set up
then put the numbers in thas wassup
take a look at the formula of that line
y = mx + b looks so fine
Linear EQuations – as easy as connecting the dots
from b, ride m, now you’re in two spots
connect the dots to make that line son
extend in each direction and you’re done
not throwin’ you a line jack, just the one in this rap
in LINEar there’s a LINE, crossin’ that LINE with this rhyme
start with the b or y-intercept
crosses that y-axis, it’s the best
for example if y = 2x + 3
3 is where the first dot’s gotta be
next look at m, or the slope
changin’ to a  fraction, makin’ it dope
2 is actually 2/1
slope is gonna be rise over run
move up two from that first dot
then run right one, man this is getting hot
place the second dot at that next point
almost done with that joint
Let’s try another one y = 1/2 x – 4
b is -4, first step is done but there’s more
from that spot on the y-axis, you need to
follow the slope, up one, right two
connect the dots to make that line
extend in each direction, take your time
label it too,  keep it nice
now a math pro, you’re as cool as ice
what if you had 2y = -3 x
Solve for y first before you get to what’s next
y = -3/2 x
or y = -3/2  x + 0  now do the rest
first dot at y-intercept of zero
think about this next step don’t be no hero
-3 means go down 3
then run right two, get it now G

Algebra Rap | Algebro

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ok to solve any problem there’s sum you don’t know
but I got you though I’m your Algebro
you don’t have all of the numbers in a certain situation gotta do more than quick multiplication
set up all the numbers on da left hand side (on da left)
then the numbers on da right let’s ride (that’s it)
if you don’t know the different sides (what’s that)
in the middle of the equals sign (call me)
A – l – g – e – b – r – o
A – l – g – e – b – r – o
A – l – g – e – b – r- o
I’m your Algebro , get it AlgeBro holla
A – l – g – e – b – r – o
A – l – g – e – b – r – o
A– l – g – e – b – r – o
I’m your  Algebro, get it
if you would take a look at all the unknowns
we call these variables, tell me what’s wrong
don’t worry I can tell you how to get this right
letters are just numbers in disguise
combine like terms (like terms) yessur
or groups of var-i-ables, that’s my word
hold up now be careful of the exponents
keep’ em with the variables , I’m on it
simplify whole numbers with like terms right
add or subtract, multiply or divide
whatever it says just follow the operation
like terms on different sides of the equation
combine like terms, you ain’t gotta be afraid
what you do to one side, on the other do the same
combine like terms, you ain’t gotta be afraid
what you do to one side, on the other do the same
an equation is just like a scale, get it right
what you take from left, take the same from the right
simplify the equation but gotta do some more
need to solve for the unknown that we looking for
oh we lookin’ for the “y”, oh it’s no big deal
we need “y” by itself , I gotta keep it real
just get rid of all the stuff that’s surrounding the “y”
do the same thang on the other side
if you have to divide or subtract, that’s fine
but it has to be aligned on the left and right side
of the equal sign, just a couple more steps
and we’ll be ending this ride
remember an equation is just like a scale
if it starts to tip then you’re surely gonna fail
whatever you do to one side, do it to the other
remember this and you won’t need me as your brother

Atom Rap

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what is this chart? I just don’t understand
these numbers and letters are making me dizzy man
first look at the atom, aint no big thing
basic unit of matter, a part of everything
inside float around the positive protons
along with all the neutral neutrons
protons by themselves get an atomic number
ok now I get it, cool as a cucumber
atomic number is the number on top
of those symbols, seems like they never stop
a symbol of a pure chemical it represents
or letters that represent an element
that’s all I need to know, yeah I got I right
but that’s just the start man, don’t put up a fight
nest thing is pretty fresh man this is the bomb
floatin’ outside is an electron
it gets real lonely when it’s only one
needs a friend to make a pair so it can have some fun
four pairs are even better to make a whole group of eight
now that there are eight, each one can feel really great
that’s four pairs times two and it’s called the octet rule
that’s easy math man I aint no dang fool
that’s how an electron loves to behave
can exist as a particle, can also be a wave
there’s another number we gotta learn in class
bigger than the atomic number, it’s called the atomic mass
atomic mass is equal to about two times the protons
a combo of equal parts protons and neutrons
in the heavy elements there might be some trouble
atomic mass can weigh  a lot more than double
lots of energy amongst all those extra neutrons
push together repelling positive protons
that single element can contain isotopes
different atomic masses, man that’s pretty dope
emits alpha, beta or gamma rays
process called radio-active decay
when these atoms split you’d better look out
nuclear energy makes me wanna shout
instead of fossil fuels, creates electricity
keep it out of bombs, like Obama use diplomacy
that’s what Einstein showed when he discovered this
the power of the atom you’d better not dis
it’s got binding energy it really wants to share
even when at rest its energy E=mc2
that’s enough background you need to know now
got to read the table, I’m gonna show you how
gonna have to come in the very next song
rap’s goin’ on and on and gettin’ too long

Skeletal System Rap

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an organ that permits locomotion
lets you move around on land or swim in the ocean
also protects, 206 of them
bones are part of your endoskeleton
two bones come together, that’s called a joint
no not this rap joint, you get the point
bones move together within a groove
cartilage coats your joints, keeps it smooth
cartilage, a tissue made of collagen
make up your ear and nose and a shark’s fin
top of a baby’s head and its knee cap
has more than 300 bones that’s a fact
babies’ bones not fused together yet son
with age they make stronger ones
cartilage gets an ossification fix
turns 300 bones into 206
inside bones the soft marrow dwells
produces red and white blood cells
hope you never need a bone marrow transplant, bud
means you got leukemia or cancer of the blood
largest bone is femur,  in your thigh you hear
smallest is stapes, amplifies sounds in your ear
three kinds of muscles: skeletal, smooth and cardiac
work with bones so you can move forward and back
involuntary are cardiac and smooth
even when you sleep, man them suckas move
skeletal is only one you can control
on the b-ball court or playing rock ‘n roll
if you exercise too much, might feel some pain
that’s ok because no pain no gain
slow and fast twitch muscles, depends on what you need
slow for marathons, fast when you need speed
myoglobin makes muscles red
binds O2 more easily than hemoglobin
more energy created for endurance
more myoglobin in the slow twitch
100,000 sarcomeres in one muscle cell
how it works now I’m gonna tell
made of proteins like tropomyosin
keeps separated myosin and actin
this is when your bummin’, singing lodi dodi
“get up and move  you bum”  your brain tells your body
calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
unlocks tropomyosin from actin
myosin loves actin, sees that it’s free
wants to get with it, that’s how its gotta be
binds with  crossbridges, creating power strokes
muscle contracts, man that aint no joke
how are bones and muscles attached
ligament connects bone to bone that’s a fact
tendons attach muscle to bone
now you know it all and you’re in the bone zone


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DNA is the building block of all life
power of these words will cut you like a knife
stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
make up genes packed in chromosomes, kid
just what is it that makes up life’s blueprint
called the genetic code but that’s just a hint
messages for the cell contained within
the nucleus of the cell is where it’s been
three billion molecules sequentially attached
most in a straight line but there’s a catch
it’s a type of chemical called a nucleotide
gonna explain now,  let’s start this ride
broken apart in 45 places
to make 46 chromosomes in all human cases
chunks of DNA wrapped real tight
stores it real good, keeps your genes right
what’s a gene, instruction for the cell son
about 23,000 of them in each one
that’s a lot of messages, tells the cell what to do
your eye color and hair and how tall you’ll be too
I’ll break it down even smaller if you care
what makes up a gene, 1400 base pairs
it’s the way DNA is organized
two strands twist together is what we realized
in 1953 when they discovered this
a double helix shape is how DNA exists
Watson and Crick won the Nobel prize
secret of life solved, answered a lot of  “whys”
4 types of DNA, each a nucleotide
a base with a phosphate and sugar outside
guanine always pairs with cytosine
thymine loves to get with adenine
hydrogen bonds make each pair really strong
to make a ladder that’s mad long
twist it and you got a double helix shape
the genius of nature you just can’t escape
that’s the story behind genes and DNA
if you forget don’t worry just in your mind say
DNA make up genes and genes make up chromosomes
nucleus is where chromosomes find a home
how can all your cells have the same genes
liver different from your brain, know what I mean
in each cell different genes are turned off and on
type of cell decides which ones are called upon
cells need to divide before they get worn out
makes fresh ones every day if you ever had a doubt
DNA undergoes process of replication
2 new strand are formed, look out for mutations
double helix gets unzipped with helicase
nucleotides are added by DNA polymerase
mutation can happen if not in the right order
may cause cancer or Alzheimer’s, a genetic disorder


Photosynthesis Rap

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ever wonder why a plant doesn’t need to eat
makes food from the sun, that you can’t beat
uses water during this process too
creates sugar from light and CO2
now it’s got energy to grow
called photosynthesis, you didn’t know
does the opposite of what we do
plants take in carbon dioxide and release O2
what makes a plant green? I’m glad you asked
photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast
plant cells can contain 100 or only one
filled with chlorophyll, where this process runs
chemistry of photosynthesis is mad easy bro
start with 6CO2 and 6H2O
add sunshine and chlorophyll to the mix
end up with C6H12O6
that’s sugar, food or glucose
plant eats it for breakfast like we eat toast
also makes 6O2 that we need
6 molecules of oxygen so we can breathe
studying the chloroplast won’t put you in a coma
inside is a fluid-filled region called the stroma
there you find the grana look like stacks of coins
what make up the grana are thylakoids
that’s where chlorophyll makes it all happen
two stages of photosynthesis: light and dark reactions
light reactions use the sun’s photons you see
make NADPH and ATP
happens in the chlorophyll reaction centers
antenna pigments gather the light as it enters
these molecules bounce energy to Photosystem 1
or Photosystem 2, depends on the wavelength son
PS 2 absorbs light at 680 nanometers
PS 1 absorbs light at 700 nanometers
depends on the chlorophyll type, ain’t tryin’ to be shady
PS1 is P700 and PS 2 is P680
noncyclic photophosphorylation you see
uses PS2 and PS1 to make ATP
photon is captured, to P680 it goes
activate electrons, to primary acceptor they flow
how’d it get electrons, photolysis is how
P680 splits water now
takes 2 electrons and makes H and O2
that’s lots of O2 for me and you
next electrons go down transport chain son
arrive at P700 or PS1
hydrogen ions are pumped into the thylakoid
then move through ATP synthase boy
ATP is produced by ADP and phosphate
photon hits PS1 a little bit late
two electrons travel through another chain
NADP becomes NADPH with the 2e- gain
less efficient method when there’s no more NADP
no NADPH produced only ATP
proton is captured, excites two electrons
go down the chain, then back to Photosytem 1
this is called cyclic phosphorylation
cyclic because electrons go in a cycle son
NADPH is not made in it
no electrons from water because it’s not split
all light reactions occur in the thylakoids
where all these pigments are, filling the void
rest of the stuff occurs in the stroma, ain’t this fun
now let’s rap about the dark reactions
energy is stored to make the food you see
in the NADPH and ATP
but it needs carbon for the 6C’s
sugar, glucose and it gets it from  me
how does it get it, well gets it from you too
it’s the stuff we breathe out in the form of CO2
carbon dioxide is turned into carbs
called carbon fixation, lets a plant live large
CO2 enters the Calvin cycle now
need to know a li’l chemistry let’s break it down
CO2 has one carbon, combines with 5
ribulose bisphophate with 6C’s comes alive
RuBP carboxylase makes the reaction strong
that’s what an enzyme does, it pushes it along
what enzymes do, they make things happen
proteins that control living things while your rappin’
we’ll get more into enzymes in another joint
let’s get back to the original point
say 3 RuBP’s combine with CO2’s they found
creating 3 unstable 6C compounds
forms 6 phosphoglycerates when it breaks down
or 6 PGA’s that’s 6 3C compounds
from 6 ATP’s it steals a phosphate
now you got 6 bisphosphglycerates
next take 6NADPH, well
it makes 6 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (PGAL)
these joints contain lots of energy
will all that NADPH and ATP
5 PGAL recombine to form 3 RuBP
are you still with me, total C’s are 15
PGAL is used to make C6H12O6
PGAL has only 3 C’s but glucose has 6
I tell ya its true, rappin’ from the heart
I know you can get it, ya seem pretty smart
ya want  me to tell ya, aight I’ll be nice
get 2PGAL from going through the Calvin cycle twice
that’s 2 times three carbons, now do ya get it
6 Carbons make glucose, how does that sit
too much info about plants, is that what’s the matter
say this rap a couple times you’ll get the whole enchilada
ya see without the sun all animals would die
the original G of all of us that ain’t no lie
so next time you see it say thank you bro
for taking care of me and all the peeps I know

Fractions Rap

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fraction is a part of a whole
telling you this from the depth of my soul
don’t let this confuse your head
all you need to know is what I just said
top number is the number where we start
called the numerator, this is the part
denominator is the number below
this is the whole, am I goin’ to slow
fraction is a part of a whole
telling you this from the depth of my soul
going to use this even when you’re old
ok now we’re on a roll
fractions are easy to multiply
listen up now gonna tell you why
if you wanna do it just the right way
then you gotta listen to what I say
multiply the top called the numerators
multiply the bottom called the denominators
don’t forget to simplify when you’re done
‘cuz multiplying fractions can be mad fun
dividing is more of the same
flip the second fraction, don’t be lame
change the operation to multiply
now you know what to do, don’t ask why
at this next part you really gotta think
for adding fractions you’re gonna have to link
the two together with a common denom
add the top only man ain’t this the bomb
subtracting is pretty much the same way
as adding you heard what I say
subtract the top and remain calm
as long as you found the common denom
if your answer is an improper fraction
you’re not finished you gotta take some action
to a mixed number you gotta change back
and simplify to lowest terms c’mon don’t slack
an improper fraction you know how to figure
bottom is small and the top is bigger
remember that the line means divide
gotta do long division can’t let you slide
what you got left is the numerator
divisor will be you denominator
add it to the whole and now it’s all fixed
simplify, you got a number that’s mixed
not sure how to simplify
find a common multiple gonna tell you why
reduce that fraction to lowest terms
better do this or else get burned

Nerve Cell Rap

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lots of information from outside world y’all
there’s a type of cell that helps you process it all
this rhyme’s gonna make you convulse
neuron transmits a nerve impulse
neuron is a nerve cell, it’s specialized
billions connected, if you didn’t realize
made of three parts mon
cell body, dendrites and axon
3 kinds are used when your reaching for a soda
sensory, interneuron, and motor
sensory feels the cold wet can
interneurons transmit message to the brain
and spinal cord, figure out what’s goin’ on
producing response in the motor neuron
cell body contain nucleus and organelles
dendrite receives the stimuli and tells
the axon to transmit impulse along
like railroad tracks to the next neuron
when not transmitting they have resting potential
lots of potassium ions inside is essential
less sodium ions inside the axonal membrane
Na K ATPase pump helps to maintain
pumps 3 sodiums outside
while pushing 2 potassiums inside
all those extra pluses cause negativity
charge inside of -70mV
neuronal membrane  is polarized
no stimulus will change it unless a decent size
minimum amount of stimulus for a neuron
is called a threshold for it to respond
action potential produces nerve impulse son
doesn’t fire part way, only all-or-none
sodium ion channels open up
lots of pluses rush in, that’s wassup
depolarization changes negative
inside is now 35 positive
potassium channels open, ions rush out
repolarization occurs through a different route
negative on the inside again
but the ions switched, inside is sodium
refractory period sets the neuron straight
sodium-potassium pump restores its former state
kicks out three sodiums
brings in two potassiums
until resting potential is reached again
you might feel cold at first and not feel it then
try jumping into a pool, neurons fire a lot
after a while you get numb unless water turns hot
through domino effect action potential spreads
transmitted down membrane till it gets to the end
end of axon is called axon bulb, jack
neurotransmitters released into the synapse
across this empty space binds to dendrites
of the next neuron at receptor sites
lots of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine
1st one discovered by Otto Loewi
won the Nobel Prize in 1936
father of Neuroscience man that’s pretty sick
acetylcholine stimulates skeletal muscle function
at the motor neuron of the neuromuscular junction
acetyl cholinesterase breaks down the excess
hangin’ around the synapse, cleans up that mess
myelin sheath insulates axon really well
increases impulse speed, produced by Schwann cells
impulse hops along nodes of Ranvier
gaps in between myelin sheaths, we clear
if you dis myelin it’ll make my blood boil
it’s mad important, memba Lorenzo’s Oil

Cell Rap

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in the world there are two kinds of things
the ones that are alive and the ones non-living
I’m not busting this rhyme hoping that it sells
I’m here to drop some knowledge, the difference is the cells
cells are the basic units of all life
make up plants and animals, not a fork or a knife
won’t find them in rocks or even in your rims
they’re in your head and in your toes, when you take off your timbs
all creatures have them in the water or on land
a lion or a shark, a crab living in the sand
cells also make up any type of plant
a tree or a bush, this mic I’m holding it just can’t
it’s got to be made up of cells to be living
a blade of grass, a flower or a turkey before Thanksgiving
cells..we’re made up of cells
cells are made of organelles
cells..we’re made up of cells
cells are made of organelles
all plants and animals are made up of cells
each cell is made up of parts called organelles
so tiny you need a microscope to see
about 100 trillion cells make up you me
even tinier are the parts called organelles
most important is the nucleus, it’s the brains of the cell
packed in chromosomes contains the DNA
tells the cell what to do, and the nucleus, it don’t play
then there are ribosomes that make protein
also are the lysosomes, they keep the cell clean
throughout the cell travels the endoplasmic reticulum
its job is to transport proteins to and from
and then there are vacuoles to store food and waste
and the golgi complex to package protein the cell makes
you know what, all plants and animals are made up of cells
and each cell is made up of parts called organelles
the mitochondrion is the cell’s powerhouse
it helps a cat run when it’s chasing a mouse
from oxygen and food it makes energy
it takes air and a burger to create ATP
this is a process called aerobic respiration
it’s why we always need to breathe at work or on vacation
the doorway to the cell is the cell membrane
a flexible outer shell it’s job is to contain
all of the organelles it makes me want to shout
‘cuz it lets the good things in and keeps the bad things out
besides the organelles the cell isn’t empty space
it’s filled with a cytoplasm,  I’ll say it to your face
it’s a fluid made of mostly water so things can float around
you best believe this or else you’ll get a beat-down
now there is a big difference between a plant and you
plant cells have all the same organelles but two
it’s surrounded by something to make it stand tall
it doesn’t have any bones so it needs a cell wall
the other in a plant helps to make it’s own food
it’s called a chloroplast,  I ain’t trying to be rude
you see plants are not like us because they don’t have to eat
gonna faint when you here this, you better take a seat
it’s called photosynthesis and you’re ain’t gonna believe it
plants turn sunrays into food, can you even conceive it
a hundred trillion cells make up you and me
it’s the basic unit of all life, don’t you see
now you know everything there is to know about the cell
I’m so proud that you do it makes me want to yell

Statistics Rap

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crazy talk don’t make no sense jack
don’t act the fool, just quote the stats
if you about to say sumthin’ wack
Probability Police got yo back
you can predict the future without guessin’
don’t need a psychic, with you I aint messin’
collect and organize the data driven metrics
interpret the trends, it’s called statistics
kinda tough to say things are a 100%
if it hasn’t happened yet, then it’s a future event
lookin’ at past data though is pretty ill
see if it can’t happen or if it probably will
data is information based on facts
not sensational stories, thems things is wack
got an argument, back it up, don’t be lazy
refer to documented info, else you be lookin’ crazy
probability is number of favorable outcomes
divided by total number of possible outcomes
if you flip a coin and want it to come up heads
got a 1 out of two chance, 50% I said
1 divided by 2 equals five tenths
that’s 0.5 or 50 hundredths
convert to percent by takin’ my advice
move the decimal to the right twice
36 possible outcomes with two die
6 different ways to roll a seven, guy
most common combo for that event
probability is 17%
jar with 20 marbles has 9 green
4 red 7 black that you can see
probability of not grabbing a red one
16 over 20 or 80% son
listing all outcomes is something to do later
mean, median, mode are ways of lookin’ at data
mean is average, all the values you add
divide by the number of values you have
median is the value in the middle, yessur
after listing them all in ascending order
mode appears the greatest number of times
now comes the graphing part of this rhyme
data in a picture makes it more clear
pie chart lists percentages, have no fear
line and bar graphs, we’ll be releasing
to tell is something is increasing or decreasing
global warming is  a hot topic
temperature going up pretty quick
don’t take my word for it, check the statistics
line graph looks like a hockey stick
pie chart says 33% got obesity
1 out of every three of us need to eat more healthy
bar graph tells us that by 2018, ya hear
medical costs will be about $344 billion per year
look at the past to predict the trends
make positive changes now and see what happens
gotta gather up all the info
and look at it all the different ways bro

Nervous System Rap

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nervous about this system, no need to be
gonna break it down, I gotcha G
lots of terms you may not know now
say this rhyme couple times, I’ll show ya how
2 Parts to the nervous system that’s my word
1 consists of the brain and spinal cord
called Central Nervous System or CNS
Peripheral Nervous System includes all the rest
7 parts of the brain there are
1st is cerebrum, it’s the largest part
from the five senses, interprets information
from up top controls all voluntary functions
gotta shove all these facts into your brain
don’t let it make you insane
it’s the most important organ, don’t wanna hear you complain
gonna feel this rhyme till I feel your pain
next is cerebellum located below
helps to coordinate those movements, ya know
allows you to be a fly breakdancer
memba that for a science quiz answer
3rd is hypothalamus, secretes hormones, aight
maintains homeostasis, your environment inside
next is medulla, controls your heart beat
involuntary actions, it’s why you breathe while you sleep
gotta shove all these facts into your brain
don’t let it make you insane
it’s the most important organ, don’t wanna hear you complain
gonna feel this rhyme till I feel your pain
then we got pons, latin for bridge
connects parts of the brain ya dig
midbrain is 6, reflex for eyes and ears
helps eyes blink, and respond to what you hear
last is thalamus, relays the info.
between cerebrum and the spinal cord below
that’s all there is to the CNS dawg
a brain of 7 parts and 1 spinal cord
gotta shove all these facts into your brain
don’t let it make you insane
it’s the most important organ, don’t wanna hear you complain
gonna feel this rhyme till I feel your pain
now let’s get into PNS
Peripheral Nervous System is way to say it best
break it down into somatic and autonomic
voluntary for somatic, automatic is autonomic
autonomic is broken down in two
sympathetic and parasympathetic too
sympathetic response is “fight or flight”
parasympathetic brings it down right
one more thing is the cerebral cortex
it’s the gray matter, don’t mean to vex
outer part of cerebrum, it makes it up
inside you got white matter that’s wassup

Percent Rap

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When you got two fractions that are the same
but written differently, call it another name
it’s the same but now you’ve got a ratio
so amped about this I made the ratio flow
percent is also part of this scene
and decimal too, know what I mean
don’t get excited, I’ll explain exactly
you’ll understand man as a matter of factly
when you got part of a whole you only got a fraction
gonna show you how you can take action
can express it as something else don’t you know
call it a percent, ok here we go
take the top number that you call the numerator
then the bottom number you call the denominator
divide the top by the bottom then multiply
by 100, you got percent, gonna tell you why
a percent is the part of a whole
whole being 100, now we’re on a roll
just like a fraction a percent is a part
it’s also called a ratio, we’re only at the start
a ratio and a fraction are the same thing
but you gotta know somethin’ I swear on my bling
the line in a fraction is called “divided by”
it also means “is to”, gonna tell you why
ratios compare two similar fractions
don’t be confused, just take some action
realize one half is the same as two fourths
because 1 is to 2 as 2 is to 4
the word “as” can also mean “equals”
if you memorize this I’ll let you see the sequel
two thirds is the same as ten fifteenths
because 2 is to 3 as 10 is to 15
ratios aren’t hard, I ain’t lying
all you do is convert by multiplying
top and the bottom by the same number
to get a ratio of the fraction, you ain’t any dumber
sometimes you need to think a bit more
and find a missing number that you’re looking for
need to set up two similar fractions the correct way
into ratios, man you better not play
the missing number can be found by cross-multiplying
and doing some algebra, I told you I’m not lying
you can find the missing number in a snap
if you think of Algebro, he always got your back
fraction can be written as a decimal
level of doubt is infinitesimal
remember that the line means divide
gotta do long division, can’t let you slide
already rapped this in another track
not gonna repeat it, don’t wanna sound wack
you’re smart enough now to get it on your own
you can solve any problem man now you’re in a zone

Acid Rap

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substances found in so many places
can be called either acids or bases
acid is a proton donator
base is a proton acceptor
why would a compound want to give away its proton
actually makes sense, this ain’t no con
atoms come together, share their electrons
makes a compound, forms a covalent bond
electronegative, one of those atoms is most
wants to hold both electrons, brings ‘em real close
don’t know which one they’re near more
look at the periodic table to be sure
electronegativity increases as you go right
and up, chlorine pulls them electrons real tight
shares them with hydrogen, you got HCl
oh yeah a proton is a hydrogen ion, well
that’s why HCl is such a strong acid
chlorine takes hydrogen’s electron for itself  kid
in a polar solvent like water it depends
H+ floats around lookin’ for a friend
H+ means it’s a hydrogen ion brother
lost an electron, it really needs another
lookin’ to bind, ions are highly unstable
lookin’ everywhere, even under the table
acids and bases dissociate in water
only strong ones do completely,  maintain order
you can figure out how many protons there are
to calculate pH, you’re not very far
pH is a scale, acids on the low side
0 to 14, bases on the high
7 in the middle, the pH of water
weak acids and bases on the border
0.01 molar HCl
a strong acid really dissociates well
in water that means 0.01 H+ concentration
man this is easier than multiplication
pH= -log proton concentration
plug in –log (0.01)
almost done, I aint playin’ you
pH of this solution is 2
weaker acids don’t dissociate completely
need dissociation constant to figure it out neatly
dissociation constant equals Ka
Ka equals [H+] [A-] over HA
that means you have a relation
hydrogen ions, conjugate base in an equation
and the undissociated acid molecules
that’s the HA, you’ll get it, just follow these rules.
figure out pH for acetic acid
concentration of that vinegar is 0.2 molar kid
Ka is 1.8 x 10-5
set up and plug in, that ain’t no jive
number of hydrogen ions is equal to  x
same as conjugate base you know what’s next
concentration of weak acid doesn’t change fool
Ka equals x2 over 0.2
solve for x and you get number of hydrogen ions
now you know how to get your pH on.
all you gotta do is take negative log
calculated pH is 2.7, dawg